Vol. 62 | no. 2 | April - June 2014 Article 7

The Role of Physics in the Development of Microelectronics (Part 3)
(full text in English)

Eugen Ştefan LAKATOŞ
The purpose of this paper is to present the basic contributions of Physics in the development of Microelectronics, a science field found at the edge between Physics and Electronics. We will show the road followed by the 20th century science and technique, beginning with 1900, from the rise of quantum theory, elaborated by Max Plank, continuing with the invention of bipolar transistor, up to the manufacturing of the first microprocessor and of the first integrated memory, this way opening the way to the construction of the first personal computer. In this paper we will present a short review of the main Physics chapters which contributed to the development of the Micro-electronics field, of the main theoretical concepts and of physical models which led to the development of the semiconductor devices manufacturing technologies industry. We will present, from the point of view physical phenomena and of modeling, the basic processes in integrated-circuit fabrication: oxidation, epitaxial growth, ion implantation and solid-state diffusion. We will describe the physical models of these processes, models which led to the design of the process flows from Microelectronics industry. These physical models are also used in simulation software of technological processes. For two of the basic processes, oxidation and solid-state diffusion, we will shortly describe the charac-terization methods, emphasizing once more the role of Physics in Microelectronics field. We will also refer, using examples, to the main process flows used in integrated circuits structures manufacturing that led to the develop-ment of Microelectronics.
Keywords: microelectronics, physical model, technological process, process flow